Basic Turning



Variable land

Shape of the cutting edge with different width land on the periphery of the rake face of the insert.



Shaking movement of the tool and the workpiece due to bad cutting conditions.




Wave shape on the vertical wall surface produced by end milling.


Width of wiper edge

The width of the wiper edge.


Wiper edge normal clearance

The clearance angle below the wiper edge.



Young’s modulus

Tensile modulus on normal stress and normal strain.




Zero cut (Spring cut)

Zero cut (Spring cut) is an operation to recut a component at a zero depth of cut.


V-T diagrams

A graph showing a relationship between cutting speed and tool life.








Wiper Insert

An insert to cut a machined surface again and finish it level.


Work Hardening

When cold-working (rolling, drawing, forging) metal, its hardness and tensile strength will increase, and metal will not extend and will become brittle.