Basic Turning




Carburizing refers to a surface treatment that is carried out on low carbon steels. The process is carried out to ensure that the surface layer is rich in carbon. Thus offering high hardness.



Casting is a process in which a metal is heated and liquefied. Once in the liquid state it is then poured into a mould. Upon cooling the liquefied metal will take up the shape of the mould.



The female part of a mould.


Cemented carbide

Cemented carbide is a material that is manufactured by combining tungsten carbide powders (WC) and binder cobalt powders (Co).


Centre drill

A drill used to spot drill a hole.



Generally the term refers to items that are hardened or made via the use of a furnace for example pottery items, glass etc. However for industrial purposes ceramics are materials that offer high mechanical and thermal properties.



Cermet is a sintered alloy that is comprised of titanium carbide (TiC) and titanium nitride (TiN) and nickel (Ni) binder.



Carbon fibre reinforced plastic. Carbon fibres are used to strengthen the material. Elasticity, heat and dampness resistance are also improved.


Chemical equilibrium

A dynamic condition of balance between the elements involved.


Chip breaker piece

A piece that is clamped on the top of an insert, its function is to act as a chip breaker.


Chip pocket

Chip pocket refers to the area available to remove the chips that are generated when machining is carried out.



Chipping is a term used to refer to chipping of the cutting edge.



Standards developed by Japan Cemented Carbide Tool Manufactures' Association.


Clearance (relief) angle

A term that refers to the angle of relief between the machined surface of the work and the flank of the cutting tool.




Depth of cut

The depth of cut is a term that is used to describe the thickness of the workpiece material that is to be removed by the cutting edge when machining.


Depth of cut line

The depth of cut line refers to an area that represents the boundary between the part of the cutting edge that machines the work and the part of the cutting edge that does not machine the work.



When the alloying element is in solution in the base metal in either a liquid or solid state.



Coating is a process in which various elements and compounds are coated onto cemented carbide and high-speed steel.


Cold forming

To form a metal at temperatures lower than recrystallization temperature.


Compression stress

A stress experienced on a body when compressed.


Compressive force

A force that acts perpendicular to the shear plane.



Used to describe shafts or holes with the same centre.



A machining operation that follows the geometry of the workpiece.


Controlled boundary

A boundary that is used to ensure high adhesion between the substrate and a diamond coating.



A term used to describe the method of machining curved surfaces.



The male part of a mould.


Cutting edge

A term used to describe the edge that carries out the actual machining of the workpiece.


Cutting edge angle of main cutting edge

The cutting edge angle of main cutting edge refers to the angle of entry of the cutting edge in the direction of tool movement.


Cutting edge fracturing

Is a term used to refer to fracturing that occurs along the cutting edge.


Cutting off

Cutting off refers to a method of machining in which the cutting edge is moved from the outer diameter through to the centre of the workpiece. In doing so a section of the workpiece is cut off from the main body of the workpiece.


Cutting resistance

The term cutting resistance refers to the force acting in the opposite direction of the cutting edge when machining a workpiece.


CVD-coated carbide

A carbide that has been coated using chemical vapor deposition coating method.



A term that refers to the roundness of a body.








Double carbide

Is a carbide in which one or more metal elements joins to the carbon element. The ratio of the metal element to the carbon element is high.



A term used to refer to a inclination purposely machined in to the geometry of a mould to ensure that the mould can be easily removed after moulding.



Duralumin is a name of one kind of aluminium

alloy. It weighs a third of that of steel but has the same hardness of steel. Duralumin offers high malleability and ductility when compared

to that of brass. It does not react with

corroded by freshwater or acetum, but

is liable to seawater or alkali corrosion.