Basic Turning



Abrasion wear

A wear pattern that occurs due to the chips rubbing across the surface of the tool.


Absolute temperature

Absolute zero is 0 degrees on the Kelvin scale it is equivalent to -273° C.



A term that describes the stickiness of a material.


Alloy concentration

This refers to the ratio of the alloy concentration.


Alloy element

The components that are used to make an alloy.



Is a term used to describe a non-crystalline body.






Back feed

When facing, back feed refers to machining from the work´s centre towards the outer diameter.



The amount of play between gear teeth and drive mechanisms.


Ball bearing

A device that comprises of ball that are housed inside a bearing. It is used to reduce the friction between 2 rotating components.


Bar work

Bar work is a term used to refer to the machining on an automatic lathe while the workpiece is being automatically fed into the machine.


Bending moment

Is the result of a force applied on a body at a point away from where the body is fixed.


Binder metal

A metal that is used to hold together numerous particles. For example in cemented carbide the binder metal is Co.


Blade type

A blade type cutter refers to an old type of milling cutter that used high-speed steel or brazed carbide blades as the cutting edge. These blades were mechanically clamped onto the face milling cutter.


Anodic oxidation

A process in which an electric anode is used for oxidizing.



An organization founded in 1918 that developed standards for industrial products in the United States.



An arbor is a term used to describe a holder that used to mount a cutting tool on to a machine spindle.



A solid solution of γ (gamma) carbon (C) in f.c.c (face-centred cubic structure). The maximum solubility of C is between 1.7% ~ 2.1%. Austenite does not exist at room temperature, however it can be obtained by rapid cooling (quenching). If obtained via a quenching process then the material properties are that it is relatively soft with high toughness.


Automatic tool changer

ATC is a device that is used on a machining centre to keeps tools in a given place. This device will mounts the tools on the spindle automatically. It is computer controlled. It is generally referred to as ATC.



Body clearance

Is a term given to an area of clearance behind the cutting edge of a drill or end mill to avoid contact with the work when machining is carried out.


Brazed tool holder

A tool holder that has a cutting edge that has been brazed on.


Brittle wear

Wear that effects the brittle particles along the cutting edge.


BT shank

BT shank is one of a wide range of standards for the shanks and spindles of machines.


Built-up edge

Built-up edge generally occurs when turning. It is a condition where some of the workpiece material welds to the cutting edge.


Burnish effect

An effect that occurs at the margin of a drill. Burnishing tends to rub the internal diameter of the drilled hole and can improve the surface finish.



A term that refers to a process used to improve the surface finish of a machined surface. This is typical in drilling operations. It can be achieved as the

softer material (the workpiece) is rubbed after machining by a harder material (the drill).


Bush length

Is the length of a bush that is used to

prevent the drill from wandering and

supports it during deep hole drilling.